Early Imami Subgroups and Beliefs

The original Persian article can be found here and downloaded here.

This article, by Muhammad Sadiq Labbani Mutlaq1, is a review and criticism of the book Nukhustin Munasibat Fikri Tashayu’, Bazkhwani Mafhum Ghulu dar Andisha-hay Mutaqadam Imami (The Earliest Shiite Intellectual Relationships, a Reevaluation of the Early Imami Concept of Ghulu). In my opinion, the most interesting part is the graphs, so that is what I will translate.

Iraqi School:

*The first man is Hisham b. Hakam. Second is Hisham b. Salim Jawaliqi. Third is Mufaddal b. ‘Umar Ju’fi.

  1. The world of dhar and azila is a theoretical world where souls exist before coming to this world. The opposite of an afterlife.
  2. Sahw al-Nabi is the belief that the Prophet (p) forgot. Particularly, the incident where he (p), allegedly, prayed two rakats instead of four.
  3. Delegation, a ghulaty belief wherein Allah (swt) created the universe and then delegated its care to the 14 Masums.
  4. The belief that the Imams receive divine inspiration.
  5. They denied wilayat-e takwini.
  6. They affirmed wilayat-e takwini.

Iranian School

  1. They denied wilayat-e takwini.
  2. They denied divine inspiration, as well as inherited knowledge for the Imams.



  1. PhD student of private law at the University of Tehran

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